sativum) belongs to Alliaceae family. It is an annual
herb, cultivated mainly for bulbs. Major Garlic
producing states are M.P., Gujarat, Rajasthan, Orissa,
U.P., Maharashtra, Punjab & Haryana. It is used
mainly as a condiment for its medicinal properties
and green leaves.
|Garlic is a frost tolerant
crop. It requires cool and moist climate during
growth period and warm dry weather during maturity.
Garlic can be cultivated in various types of soils,
but well drained fertile loamy soil is suitable
for this crop.
|Land should be brought to fine
tilth by shallow ploughing 4-5 times, giving sufficient interval
between two ploughings. Land should be levelled and divided into
small plots and channels to facilitate proper irrigation
and intercultural operations.
|The planting differs from region
to region. In Gujarat, planting of Garlic is done
during October-November. In Maharashtra, M.P., Karnataka
& A.P., it is planted from August to October
and in northern part of India September to November.
|General recommendation of spacing
for Garlic is 15cm row to row and 10 cm from plant
|Godavari, Sweta, HG-1, HG-6,
Pusa Sel-10, LCG-1, ARU-52, Agrifound White(G-41),
Yamuna Safed(G-1), Yamuna Safed-2(G-50), G-282 and
Agrifound Parvati are major varieties of Garlic.
Varieties like G-282 and Agrifound Parvati having
bigger cloves and bulbs are most suitable for export.
|General recommendation of manures
and fertilizers for garlic in normal soil condition
is 50 MT FYM, 100 kg Nitrogen, 50 kg Phosphorous
and 50 Kg Potash per ha. Full dose of FYM should
be incorporated in the soil at the time of land
preparation. Half dose of Nitrogen, full dose of
Phosphorus & Potash may be applied as basal
dose at the time of planting and remaining Nitrogen
after one month of planting.
|Generally 2 to 3 weeding are
recommended. 1st weeding should be done one month
after planting, 2nd one month after first weeding
and 3rd weeding at later stage of crop. Hoeing at
the time of bulb formation ie.2½ months after
planting helps in setting of bigger well filled
|Garlic being a shallow rooted
crop, it needs frequent irrigation. There should
be no moisture scarcity during growth period. Generally,
irrigation should be given at an interval of 8-15
days depending on soil and climate. When crop reaches
its maturity (plants pseudo stem begin to bend /break
or dry) irrigation should be stopped.
|i) Stem & Bulb
Nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci): It is a tiny
worm, which damages the tissues of garlic and reduces
the yield significantly. Basal portion of the mature
plants swell and become spongy, the leaves and stems
become rotten. Soil fumigation with Dichloropropene-Dichloropropane
(D-D) mixture before planting @ 500 Kg per ha is
recommended for control of Stem & Bulb Nematode.
ii) Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci):
This is a small insect which hides in the leaf
axils and feeds on leaves turning it to white
or silvery in colour. Spray of 0.1% solution of
Malathion or 0.075% solution of Methyl Demeton
is effective in controlling thrips. Spray of Phorate
@ 1 Kg a.i. per ha at the time of planting and
30 days after planting is also effective.
iii) Mites (Rhizoglyphus callae &
Glycohaqus domesticus): These insects
attack bulbs stored for longer periods. Fumigation
of dry bulbs with Methyl bromide @ 1Kg per 1000
cubic feet space for two hours at 80°F
is recommended after harvest and before storage.
|i) White Rot (Sclerotium
cepivorum): This is also called as Allium root rot.Yellowing and wilting of leaves
are the major symptoms of attack of this fungus.
It causes rotting of bulbs in later stage. It can
be controlled by spraying of 0.15% solution of Carbendazim
or 0.25 % solution of Dithane M-45 at the time of
planting in rows.
ii) Penicillium Rot
(Penicillium corymbiferum): Decay caused
by penicillium may occur in field and storage
both. This fungus generally invades thick fleshy
part of the cloves in storage and softens it, later
shrivels & finally blue-green spores are seen.
Very young plants are affected by this fungus
in the field.
iii) Stemphylium Blight (Stemphylium
vesicarium): Small yellow – orange
streaks on the leaves. Soon they develop into
elongated spots and turn grey at centre, finally
it develop conidiophores and conidia of the fungus.
These spots coalesce and blighted portion can
be seen which gradually covers entire leaf. Spraying
of 0.25% solution of Mancozeb at regular interval
of 15 days after appearance of first symptoms,
can be used for control of the disease.
iv) Purple Blotch (Alternaria porri):
Symptoms of this disease appear on leaves. Small
whitish sunken lesions/ purple blotch are seen
on the leaves, which enlarge rapidly. The leaves
fall gradually. Spraying of 0.25% solution of
Mancozeb at regular interval of 15 days after
appearance of first symptoms, can be used for
control of the disease.
v) Cercospora Leaf Blight (Cercospora
duddiae): The symptoms of this disease
also appear on leaves. Small irregular dark brown
spots scattered on lamina are seen in the plant
affected by this disease. These spots gradually
coalesce and foliage becomes blighted. Spraying
of 0.2% solution of Ziram or Captan or 0.3% solution
of Copper oxichloride at fortnightly intervals
should be done to control this disease.
vi) Powdery Mildew (Leveillula taurica):
Distinct pale yellow patches of variable size
coupled with powdery mass on the lower side of
leaves are main symptoms of this disease. Spraying
of 0.2% solution of Sulphur fungicides should
be done to control this disease and it should
be repeated at regular intervals of 15 days after
appearance of the symptoms.
vii) Mosaic: Garlic plants affected
with mosaic virus show typical chlorotic mottling
& stripes on the first emerging leaf followed
by pale yellow broken stripes on matured leaves.
As the virus is transmitted by aphids, controlling
the vector is useful. Spraying of 0.05% solution
of Monocrotophos is recommended to control mosaic.
|c) Physiological Disorders:
|Some physiological disorders
like sprouting of bulbs, etc are observed in some
varieties of Garlic. This disorder is not of permanent
nature and varies from variety to variety.
|The crop becomes ready for
harvest when the tops turn yellowish or brownish
and show sign of drying. It takes about 4-5 months
after planting to reach maturity. After harvesting,
bulbs are dried in shade. Bulbs should be stored
in cool dry place having proper aeration.
|10 - 20 MT / ha.