| Cumin, commonly
known as Jeera, (Cuminum cyminum) belongs to Apiacae
family, widely cultivated in Gujarat, Rajasthan
and in some parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
as Rabi crop. Cumin is mainly used in flavouring
foods. It is also used in Ayurvedic medicines.
|Cumin is a tropical
plant. It grows well in sub-tropical climate too.
High humidity during flowering & fruit set,
causes fungal diseases in this crop. Cumin can be
cultivated in all types of soils but well drained
sandy loam and medium soils are suitable for the
like S-404, MC-43. Gujarat Cumin-1(GC-1), GC-2,
GC-3, RS-1, UC-198, RZ-19, etc., evolved by Agricultural
Universities of Gujarat and Rajasthan having higher
yield potential are useful for cultivation. The
maturity days are 110 to 115 days depending on variety.
|Sowing is done
from 1st week of November to 1st week of December
by broadcasting or in rows drilled at 30 cm. Seed
rate vary from 12 to 15 kg / ha, depending upon
method of sowing & type of soil. Sowing of seeds
should be done at a depth of 1 – 2 cm after
treatment with Ceresan or thiram or Difoltan @
3.0 g per kg. Soaking of seeds for 8 hours before
sowing is helpful in getting good germination. Soaked
seeds should be dried in shade to facilitate broadcasting.
Sowing at higher depths affect the germination of
seeds, adversely. Crop rotation should be followed
to avoid incidence of pest and diseases.
|Soil is brought
to fine tilth by 2-3 ploughing with harrow or deshi
plough. Stubbles of previous crops should be collected
and removed from the field. Clods should be broken
and field should be leveled with the help of plank.
Beds of 4 m x 3 m size with provision of irrigation
channels should be prepared before sowing of seeds
to facilitate proper irrigation and intercultural
|15 – 20 MT
FYM, 30 kg Nitrogen & 15 kg Phosphorus per ha
is recommended for cumin crop. Whole quantity of
FYM should be mixed into the soil at the time of
land preparation and 15 kg Nitrogen & whole
quantity of Phosphorus should be applied as basal
dose. Another, 15 kg Nitrogen should be applied
as topdressing one month after germination of seeds.
|The crop should
be kept free from weeds for proper growth and development
of plants. Generally 2-3 hand weeding are required
to keep the weeds under check. In drilled crop light
intercultural operation is beneficial. 1st weeding
and hoeing should be done after 30-40 days from
the date of sowing.
|Based on type of
soil, crop requires 4-6 rounds of irrigation. 1st light irrigation
should be given immediately after sowing and second
irrigation should be given after 6-10 days from
1st irrigation. Subsequent irrigations should be
given after 30, 45, 65 and 80 days from 1st irrigation.
Irrigation at the time of flowering and fruit set
are essential. At maturity stage irrigation should
Aphid is a major pest of cumin crop, it
sucks the sap of tender parts and reduces the yield.
Spraying of 0.03% solution of Dimethoate or 0.025%
solution of Methyl demetone or 0.04% solution of
Monocrotophos is recommended to control the aphid.
Leaf eating Catterpillar:
This pest causes damage to the foliage of plants
reducing yield of the crop. It can be controlled
by spraying of 0.02% solution of Phosphamidon
in the early stage of crop.
wilt: Infected plants show peculiar symptoms
of dropping of tips and leaves, leading to mortality
of the entire plant. Attack of wilt is severe in
younger plants. There is no chemical control for
this disease. Crop rotation and use of Neem cake
are helpful in checking spread of the fungus vis-à-vis
disease. Seeds collected from disease free plots
should only be used for sowing.
Blight: The blight affected plants show
very minute brownish necrotic spots, which later
turn to blackish. Mostly diseased plants fail
to produce seeds. If seeds are produced they remain
shriveled, light in weight and dark in colour.
For the control of this disease seed treatment
and spraying of 0.2% solution of Dithane-M-45
4 times at 10 days interval commencing from 40
days after sowing is recommended. Add 1 ml soap
solution / liter water for better efficiency of
fungicide. The crop should be kept free from weeds.
Crops requiring more irrigation and mustard should not be grown in the vicinity of this crop.
Affected plants in early stages show minute whitish
spots on leaves, petiole, stem pedicel and seeds.
In severe condition, it looks as the plants have
been dusted with white powder. At later stages
of attack seeds become white and shriveled and
light in weight. Crop should be dusted with 300
mesh Sulphur dust @ 25 kg/ha to control this disease
as soon as the symptoms are noticed. Spraying
of wettable Sulphur or Dinocap (Kerathan or Thiowet)
can also be used to control the disease @ 20-25
g per 10 liter of water at the initial stage of
this disease. If needed second spray should be
given 15-20 days after first spray.
crop takes about 110-115 days to reach maturity.
Crop becomes ready to harvest, when plants turn
yellowish brown. Harvesting should be done early
in the morning by cutting/uprooting the whole plants.
Harvested crop should be dried in the threshing
yard thrashed to separate the seeds. Seeds should
be cleaned by winnowing.
|600 to 700 kg/ha.