Description Coriander is an important spice
crop having a prime position in flavouring
food. The plant is a thin stemmed, small,
bushy herb, 25 to 50 cm in height with
many branches and umbels. Leaves are alternate,
compound. The whole plant has a pleasant
aroma. Inflorescence is a compound umbel
comprises 5 smaller umbels. Fruit is globular,
3 to 4 mm diameter, when pressed break
into two locules each having one seed.
Fruit has delicate fragrance; seeds are
pale white to light brown in colour.
There are two distinct morphological
types, one erect and tall with a comparatively
stronger main shoot and the other bushy
with a relatively weaker main shoot
and longer spreading branches.
Origin and Distribution It is a native of Mediterranean
and commercially produced in India,
Morocco, Russia, East European countries,
France, Central America, Mexico, and
USA. Coriander is a tropical crop and
can be successfully cultivated as a
rabi season crop in an area free from
severe frost during February when the
crop flowers and sets its seeds.
Uses The young plant is used for flavouring
and garnishing curries and soups. The
fruits (seeds) are widely used as condiments
with or without roasting in the preparation
of curry powders, sausages and seasonings.
It is an important ingredient in the manufacture
of food flavourings, in bakery products,
meat products, soda & syrups, puddings,
candy preserves and liquors.
In medicines it
is used as a carminative, refrigerant,
diuretic, and aphrodisiac. In household
medicines, it is used against seasonal
fever, stomach disorders, and nausea.
Coriander oil and oleoresins are primarily
used in seasonings for sausages and
other meat products.